Правило verb to be

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Could you please explain how to use “be + to + verb,» as in the sentence below? –Elihu, Mexico

  • We are to get a wage raise in May.
  • Answer

    The construction “be + to + verb” is a formal construction that is used either a) to give an instruction or command, or b) to tell what is going to happen in the future.

    In the following three sentences, the “be + to + verb” construction signals that these are commands. This construction makes the sentences sound serious and formal.

  • You are to do your homework without watching any TV.
  • The students are not to travel by subway without a friend.
  • [Patient speaking to nurse] The doctor says that I’m to make an appointment to come back next month.
  • In the following sentences, the “be + to + verb” construction tells us that these sentences are about planned or scheduled events.

  • The plane is to take off at 9pm.
  • The new kitchen cabinets are to arrive before December 20th.
  • Their house is to be sold right away.
  • Again, these sentences sound formal. If we change the verb construction to “be + going + to + verb,” they retain the same meaning but sound less formal.

  • The plane is going to take off at 9am.
  • The new kitchen cabinets are going to arrive before December 20th.
  • Their house is to going to be sold right away.
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    The Simple present of the verb to be

    The simple present of the verb to be

    This page will present the simple present of the verb to be:

    The verb to be

    The verb to be is the most important verb in the English language. It is difficult to use because it is an irregular verb in almost all of its forms. In the simple present tense, to be is conjugated as follows:

    Affirmative forms of the verb to be

    Interrogative forms of the verb to be:

    Negative Forms of the verb to be:

    Examples:

  • Is Brad Pitt French?
  • No, he isn’t. He‘s American.
  • What about Angelina Joli? Is she American, too?
  • Yes, she is. She is American.
  • Are brad Pitt and Angelina Joli French?
  • No, They aren’t. They are American.
  • Use of the simple present of to be

    The principal use of the simple present is to refer to an action or event that takes place habitually, but with the verb «to be» the simple present tense also refers to a present or general state, whether temporary, permanent or habitual.

  • I am happy.
  • She is helpful.
  • The verb to be in the simple present can be also used to refer to something that is true at the present moment.

  • She is 20 years old.
  • He is a student.
  • Using the Most Basic Verb in English

    The verb to be is a key verb in English, playing a major part in many types of constructions, as in all other European languages ( etre in French, sein in German, ser/estar in Spanish). It has many usages and meanings, both as a main verb and as an auxiliary verb. It also acts differently in negative sentences and questions. To know more, read these sections of our review on the verb to be in English.

    1. Forms
    2. Meaning
    3. Uses
    4. In negative sentences.
    5. In questions
    6. With time expressions
    7. Summary

    I am Dan Smith. She is a doctor. We are from Spain.
    [Existence, identity]

    He was with his sister in Madrid while we were at home.
    [Location]

    I will be 32 in December.
    [Age]

    This dress is size 9. Her last apartment was very small.
    [Size]

    The sky is blue, and so is my favorite color.
    [Color]

    We are from Italy.
    [Origin]

    How are you today ? I ’m fine, thanks.
    [Mood]

    My new teacher is very nice.
    The results of our research are very promising.
    [copula]

    • To be is also part of many commonly used verb phrases, such as the following:
    to be afraid, to be aware of, to be happy, to be derived from

    As an auxiliary verb, to be is used to create progressive verb forms and passive constructions.

    • The general formula for progressive forms is:

    Donna is reading her new book.
    [ is reading is in the Present Progressive Tense]

    Her Parents have been working in book publishing for years.
    [ have been publishing is in the Present Progressive Tense]

    Ron may be traveling in India next month.
    [ may be traveling is a modal progressive form]

    • The general formula for passive forms is:

    English is spoken around the world.
    [ is spoken is in the Present Simple Passive]

    While the new airport was being built, my parents decided to move.
    [ Was being built is in the Past Progressive Passive]

    This story could have been written differently.
    [ could have been written is in a modal perfect passive form]

    4. In negative sentences

    Positive sentence – She is from Spain.
    Negative sentence – She is not from Spain.
    [ to be is the main verb, no auxiliary verb needed]

    Positive sentence – She works in Madrid.
    Negative Sentence – She doesn’t work in Madrid.
    [ to be is not he main verb, auxiliary verb needed]

    5. In questions

    Positive sentence – She is from Spain.
    Yes/No question – Is she from Spain ?
    [ to be is the main verb, no auxiliary verb needed]

    Positive sentence – She works in Madrid.
    Yes/No question – Does she work in Madrid ?
    [ to be is not he main verb, auxiliary verb needed]

    Positive sentence – She is from Spain.
    Wh question – Where is she from ?
    [ to be is the main verb, no auxiliary verb needed]

    Positive sentence – She works in Madrid.
    Wh question – Where does she work in ?
    [ to be is not he main verb, auxiliary verb needed]

    Positive sentence – She is my friend from Spain.
    Wh Subject question – Who is she ?
    [ to be is the main verb, no auxiliary verb needed in a Wh subject question]

    Positive sentence – My Spanish friend works in Madrid.
    Wh Subject question – Who works in Madrid ?
    [ to be is not he main verb, no auxiliary verb needed in a Wh subject question]

    6. With time expressions

    The verb to be has a variety of usages and forms in the English language. Make sure you are using the correct form and positioning it correctly in the sentence according to the grammar rules presented here.

    Правило verb to be

    Verb «to be»

  • English Verbs
  • Verb «to be»
  • What is the English verb «to be»?

    The verb «to be» can be used as the main verb tense or as the auxiliary verb.

    The verb to be is used as the main verb tense to state that something or someone exists.

    Rules for using the verb tense «to be»:

    The verb tense «to be» changes form according to the subject when used as both the auxiliary verb and the main verb.

    The verb «to be» changes form according to the subject when used as both the auxiliary verb or as the main verb.

    When the verb tense «to be» is used as a main verb tense it is used in the simple tense only.

    When the verb tense «to be» is the only verb, when used as a main verb.

    When the verb tense «to be» is used as the main verb tense.

    • Negative statements/sentence use the word «not» without «do — does — did». — — — Questions are formed by putting the verb «to be:» before the subject.
    • The verb «to be» is an irregular verb.
      1. Home
      2. ESL English

      Are you looking for a list of all the ways in which the verb to be can be conjugated? Maybe this will help:

      am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been

      To be can be used as a main verb (example: am in I am sincere).

      To be can be used as an auxiliary «helper» verb to help another verb (example: am helps reading in I am reading).

      To be itself needs a helper verb to express any tense other than past and present (examples: future tense needs will in I will be sincere; past perfect tense needs had in I had been sincere).

      To be sometimes helps itself (example: am helps being in I am being sincere).

      Here are the forms of to be that can be used without helpers:

      am, is, are, was, were, be

      You are sincere.

      They were sincere.

      (I wish) I were sincere. (subjunctive mood past)

      (I recommend) he be sincere. (subjunctive mood present)

      Be sincere. (imperative mood)

      Here are the forms of to be that always need helpers:

      I am being sincere.

      She was being sincere.

      He has been sincere.

      We have been sincere.

      We can also turn a verb like to be into something else by using the infinitive and gerund forms:

      Being sincere is a virtue.

      I want to be sincere.

      I am being sincere when I say that all this is not easy!

      The forms of the infinitive

      An infinitive can be a to -infinitive or a bare infinitive (without to ). There is no difference in meaning between them; some structures require a to -infinitive, while others call for a bare infinitive:

      I ought to call them. ( to -infinitive)
      I had better call them. (bare infinitive)

      In the negative, not usually comes before the infinitive:

      I ought not to call them.
      I had better not call them.

      In some cases, the verb in the main clause is negative, not the infinitive:

      I want to call them.
      I don’t want to call them.

      As the infinitive has no tense, it does not in itself indicate the time of the action that it refers to. However, it can have aspect, which shows the temporal relationship between the action expressed by the infinitive and the time of the preceding verb. There are four types of infinitive, each of which has an active and passive form:

      Simple infinitive

      The simple infinitive refers to the same time as that of the preceding verb:

      I was glad to see her.
      He must be very happy.
      I‘ll arrange a meeting with the manager.
      My son’s football coach is said to be very strict.

      Continuous infinitive

      The continuous infinitive refers to the same time as that of the preceding verb and expresses an action in progress or happening over a period of time:

      I‘m glad to be sitting here.
      You must be joking.
      This time next week, I‘ll be lying on the beach in Croatia.
      Vincent was reported to be staying in Paris at that time.

      Perfect infinitive

      The perfect infinitive refers to a time before that of the preceding verb:

      I‘m glad to have studied at that school.
      They must have forgotten about the deadline.
      By next week, they‘ll have finished painting the rooms.
      Lucy was assumed to have left the day before.

      Perfect continuous infinitive

      The perfect continuous infinitive refers to a time before that of the preceding verb and expresses an action in progress or happening over a period of time:

      I‘m glad to have been living in Barcelona for the last ten years.
      He must have been waiting for ages.
      Soon, he‘ll have been running for four hours.
      The organisers were thought to have been preparing for days.

      Passive infinitives

      Passive forms are also possible:

      Your composition has to be typed. (passive simple infinitive)
      The spy’s phone was believed to be being tapped. (passive continuous infinitive, rarely used)
      This sonnet must have been written by Shakespeare. (passive perfect infinitive)
      The picture is believed to have been being painted for years. (passive perfect continuous infinitive, rarely used)

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